Few images are more strikingly perfect than Derek Ridgers' two shots of Tuinol Barry, that iconic punk, his forehead emblazoned with a tattoo of a Sex Pistols lyric "We are the flowers in your dustbin". In one Derek captures him shaven headed with big vulnerable eyes, pouting lips, and pierced nose. His expression a mixture of defiance and resignation; the reluctant nihilist. A few years later, he shot him again, his hair grown out and wildly combed across head, still revealing that provocative, accusatory tattoo, a Bowie tee just visible through his denim jacket.
Between the two images -- shot only a few years apart -- they chart a volatile time in British culture, a dramatic and violent rebirth of the underground; on the streets the flowers in the dustbin were blooming in cracks more used to weeds. Derek's photos chart a time when culture felt vital enough, when youth felt angry enough, empty enough of hope, against enough of what society stood for, to get such refusal of society tattooed across their foreheads forever. There's Tuinol Barry, across the years but forever the flower in your dustbin.
Tuinol Barry, Kings Road, London, 1983 © Derek Ridgers
These photos form just a small segment of a new exhibition at London's Beetles + Huxley Gallery, titled An Ideal For Living, a survey of the works of over 20 photographers, spread over 80 years, documenting the changing class, culture and identity of Britain. Documenting it as it morphed from the interwar years, the last glorious hurrah of the class system and Empire, to the grey and cold austerity years of the 50s, the dramatic cultural rebirth of the swinging 60s, the turbulent 70s, the rise of Thatcher, the great social cleansings and divides and ruptures of the 80s, the ascent of Blairism and the new cuddly neo-liberalism of New Labour and chummy appropriation of the laddish working class of Britpop in the late 90s. The still relevant echoes of all these things we find today. Quite a span of time, attitudes, poses and politics to chart.
The exhibition's curator, Flora La Thangue, explains how "The photographs in the exhibition show that class has, and always will be, a performance." This is evident in the exhibition's earliest images, works by Bill Brandt and E.O. Hoppé; pictures of parlour maids, and a schoolboy stacked high with luggage waiting for a train at Paddington, respectively. Both exemplars of a social divide in Edwardian Britain; a Britain where you knew your place. But it's unreal too, a performance, "Brandt's photograph of the parlour-maids was entirely staged in his own uncle's house" Flora clarifies. Hoppé's schoolboy, too, feels staged, too perfect, too aware.
Mill Girls, Elland, Yorkshire, 1965 © John Bulmer
So these images are performed for the camera, but also, they document class as a performance, the rigid adherence to the rituals and codes of the tribe. "From the 30s onwards, photographers have sought to document the ways in which groups brought together by class, religion, age or ethnicity have built communal identities," Flora says. "The theatricality of class identity can be seen as clearly in Bill Brandt's photographs of parlour-maids from the 30s as in Colin Jones' images of working class communities in the North of England and in Frank Habicht's images of the Swinging 60s."
And it's in the 60s that the exhibition swings into life. There's images of Teds, rebellious and quiffed, who preceded and laid the ground for the youthquake of the 60s, but it's the 60s themselves, when the self-realised class identities become frayed and less visible, more flexible and more elastic, that the documentarians task becomes more intriguing. As the imagination expands, so does the possibility of the performance.
Time gentlemen please: London Stock Exchange, 1960, © Frank Habicht
There's an image, captured by Frank Habicht in the early 60s, of two girls, styled out in Quant-esque miniskirts, loafers, exquisite knitwear, flowerpower headbands. They're speaking to a classic banker of the old school type -- full Savile Row and bowler hat, round specs, rolled up umbrella doubling up as a walking stick. He's out on the streets of the City, the girls asking him the time, an uneasy clash of old and new worlds, yet there's no friction, a laugh escapes from the banker's moustache-rimmed mouth, as if he's in on the whole glorious, ridiculous spectacle. There's an uneasy ghost at the feast in the background though, not in the joke, a flatcapped and work-jacketed 50s-relic staring down the lens in the distance. He could've been launched in from a different image, he's conspicuously not part of the conversation, the world you imagine, will go on to be the same for the banker, there's a new world opening for the young, there soon won't be much of a place left for that gruff spectre of an old working class. Those girls though, performing their new-found liberation, conscious harbingers of a new mode of being, a joyful crash of light into an old grey world.
Red Hijab, Red Dress and Bling, from the series 'Honest with you', 2013 © Mahtab Hussain
The 60s were a sort of childhood arcadia of class and culture in the country at large, a time were coexisting tribes slipped by each other without resistance, an era brought back down with a crash by the time the 70s rolled around. Or rather reality had caught up with the dream. The 70s became a time of social unrest, that manifested itself at the end of the decade in punk, a nihilistic response of a generation who felt like they were the flowers in the dustbin of British society. Immigration from Britain's old colonies had brought a new culture, which manifested itself first, in the 60s, as mods, a more holistic merging of two cultures' class identities, and then skins, a violent monocultural reaction to a changing culture and class identity. "The urge to rebel becomes, ironically, a common thread that runs through many of the photographs in the exhibition," Flora suggests. Rebellion is of course at the heart of youth culture, a reaction to the world our parents created. But there's two caveats; one, Jürgen Schadeberg's images of the rich and rarefied world of the students of Cambridge University, the other Charlie Philipp's document of Black British life at the time. The rebellers, those being rebelled against, those striving simply to find a place. An Ideal For Living is a quest as much as it could be an instruction. Changing patterns of immigration's impact on the city and its inhabitants, drums out a beat throughout the photos. Mahtab Hassan's image of a girl in a red hijab, gliding past a paint-peeling gate in 2013, in what could be any identikit area of any identikit city, stands in uneasy counterpoint to Syd Shelton's image of Bagga, in Hackney, in 1979, equally impeccably dressed as a girl, in full mod uniform. It suggest questions posed here historically haven't gone away. Something as relevant with an older, whiter working class, as it is with the newer, first and second gen immigrants.
May Ball, Cambridge, 1983 © Jurgen Schadeberg
James Morris's landscapes of Wales, post-industry, capture the resonance of the changing class structures writ in the earth. Peter Dench's photos of Epsom capture those who've preserved a bit of the old world rites and rituals in a sea of G&T and Union Jacks, a photographic debt owed of course to Martin Parr, who has spent a career capturing those rites and rituals, the people and character of Britain's studiously working class life, faded but not quite disappeared.
Class changes, identity morphs, but some things are constant if not immutable. The success of An Ideal For Living is picking up the echoes across the ages; the impacts of waves of immigration, changing economies, shifting counter cultures, it picks at those moments and seems to say, the more things change, the more they stay the same.
Blaenau Ffestiniog, Gwynedd Wales, 2008 © James Morris
Picnic in the car park on Derby Day at Epson Downs Racecourse, June 2001 © Peter Dench
New Brighton. From The Last Resort. 1983-85 copyright Martin Parr / Magnum Photos
No loss of face, Earl's Court, London c 1960 © Frank Habicht
And the crowd went crazy: Stones concert, Hyde Park, 1969 © Frank Habicht
George and his son, Marlin, Acklam Road, 1972, © Charlie Phillips
Text Felix Petty
Images courtesy of Beetles + Huxley